Children with ependymoma have high mortality rates because ependymoma is resistant to conventional therapy. Genomic and transcriptomic studies have identified potential targets as significantly altered genes in ependymoma patients. Although several candidate oncogenes in ependymoma were recently reported, the detailed mechanisms for the roles of these candidate oncogenes in ependymoma progression remain unclear. Here, we report an oncogenic role of the nucleoporin TPR (translocated promoter region, nuclear basket protein) in regulating HSF1 (heat shock transcription factor 1) mRNA trafficking, maintaining MTORC1 activity to phosphorylate ULK1, and preventing macroautophagy/autophagy induction in ependymoma. High expression of TPR were associated with increased HSF1 and HSPA/HSP70 expression in ependymoma patients. In an ependymoma mouse xenograft model, MTOR inhibition by rapamycin therapeutically suppressed TPR expression and reduced tumor size in vivo. Together, these results suggest that TPR may act as a biomarker for ependymoma, and pharmacological interventions targeting TPR-HSF1-MTOR may have therapeutic potential for ependymoma treatment. Abbreviations: ATG: autophagy related; BECN1: beclin 1; BSA: bovine serum albumin; CQ: chloroquine; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; GEO: gene expression omnibus; GFP: green fluorescence protein; HSF1: heat shock transcription factor 1; HSPA/HSP70: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70); LMNB1: lamin B1; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MAPK8/JNK: mitogen-activated protein kinase 8; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; NPC: nuclear pore complex; NUP: nucleoporin; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; q-PCR: quantitative real time PCR; SDS: sodium dodecyl sulfate; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STED: stimulated emission depletion microscopy; STX17: syntaxin 17; TCGA: the cancer genome atlas; TPR: translocated promoter region, nuclear basket protein; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1.