Novel subgenotypes of hepatitis B virus genotypes C and D in Papua, Indonesia

Maria Inge Lusida, Victor Eka Nugrahaputra, Soetjipto, Retno Handajani, Motoko Nagano-Fujii, Mikiko Sasayama, Takako Utsumi, Hak Hotta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Citations (Scopus)


Eight genotypes (A to H) and nine subtypes (adw2, adw4, ayw1, ayw2, ayw3, ayw4, adrq+, adrq-, and ayr) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been identified worldwide. They appear to be associated with geographical distribution, virological characteristics, and possibly clinical outcomes. We performed sequence analysis of part of the S gene and the entire precore/core gene of HBV isolates obtained from HBsAg-positive blood donors in Papua Province, Indonesia. Phylogenetic analysis of the S gene sequences revealed that 23 (85.2%) of the 27 HBV isolates tested belonged to genotype C (HBV/C) and 2 (7.4%) each to HBV/B and HBV/D. Interestingly, 19 (82.6%) of the 23 isolates of HBV/C clustered in a branch that was distinct from the previously reported subgenotypes C1 to C5 (HBV/C1 to HBV/C5). Similarly, two isolates of HBV/D clustered in a branch distinct from the reported subgenotypes HBV/D1 to HBV/D5. Phylogenetic analysis of the entire precore/core gene confirmed the consistent presence of the distinct branches in HBV/C and HBV/D. We therefore propose novel subgenotypes designated HBV/C6 and HBV/D6. The majority of HBV/C6 isolates in Papua had alanine at positions 159 and 177 (A159/A177) in the HBsAg. A159/A177 is different from the determinants for adrq+ (A159/V177), found throughout Asia, and adrq- (V159/A177), found in New Caledonia and Polynesia, possibly representing a unique antigenic group (provisionally referred to as adrq indeterminate). In conclusion, we have identified two novel HBV subgenotypes, HBV/C6 and HBV/D6, the first of which is the most prevalent subgenotype of HBV in Papua, Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2160-2166
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Microbiology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2008


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