Non-medical and non-invasive interventions for erectile dysfunction in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A scoping review

Setho Hadisuyatmana, James H. Boyd, Ferry Efendi, Gulzar Malik, Michael Bauer, Sonia Reisenhofer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) often affects men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to microvascular damage. However, medical interventions are not always appropriate. Aim: This scoping review aimed to answer the following question: What evidence is available about the effects of non-medical and non-invasive healthcare interventions to improve ED in men with T2DM? Method: Potential studies were collected from the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature via EBSCO, Embase via Ovid, MEDLINE via Ovid, Web of Science, PubMed, ProQuest, and PsycINFO via Ovid. Findings: From 2,611 identified titles, 17 studies, including 11 interventional and 6 observational studies, were included. Four main alternatives to medical interventions were identified from the included studies. Amongst these, four studies recommended patient education on lifestyle modification, twelve studies encouraged dietary changes and physical activities, two studies emphasized the use of vacuum erectile device, and three studies suggested the application of low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy by healthcare professionals. Discussion: Dietary modification and physical activities were promoted as effective interventions to help maintaining the erectile function in men with T2DM. Several methods of patient education were identified as the approach to facilitate lifestyle modification in men with T2DM-associated ED. The positive outcomes of this review support early ED screening to help preventing T2DM complications such as ED in men. Further, T2DM management is a shared responsibility between the men and healthcare professionals. Despite the success of Vacuum Erectile Device and Low-intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy in regaining erectile function, further research is needed in this area based on the recommendations of the American Urological Association. Moreover, the health and quality of life of men with T2DM must be improved.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere15778
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • Diet modification
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Lifestyle
  • Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy
  • Patient education
  • Physical exercise
  • Therapy
  • Type-2 diabetes mellitus
  • Vacuum erectile device


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