Nipah (Musa Acuminata Balbisiana) banana peel as a lignocellulosic precursor for activated carbon: characterization study after carbonization process with phosphoric acid impregnated activated carbon

Norshila Abu Bakar, Norzila Othman, Zalilah Murni Yunus, Wahid Ali Hamood Altowayti, Adel Al-Gheethi, Syazwani Mohd Asharuddin, Muhammad Tahir, Nurina Fitriani, Siti Nor Aishah Mohd-Salleh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nipah banana fruits have gained some great attention in banana chips industries and several wastes generated could be used as a potential source for activated carbon production. Furthermore, activated carbon derived from Nipah banana peel was prepared by immersing a 60 g dried banana in 1000 mL of 25% phosphoric acid solution in a sealed beaker at varied carbonization temperatures (450, 470, 490, and 510 °C) for 30 min. In order to determine the potential of using Nipah banana peel, the raw Nipah banana peel was subjected to Thermo Gravimetric analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), and Micrometric ASAP 2020. The influences of carbonization temperature and impregnation ratio on the yield, functional group, surface morphology, and pore development of activated carbon were also investigated. The results revealed that carbonization affects the yield, functional group, surface morphology, and pore structures of activated carbon. The experimental results revealed that the optimum carbonization conditions were obtained at 470 °C with a 73.83% of yield. FT-IR analysis identified the presence of hydroxyl groups, carbonyl groups, ethers, and aromatic compounds deposited in the Nipah banana peel lignocellulosic structure. FESEM images on the surface morphology indicated well-developed pores as a result of increased activation temperature. Meanwhile, surface area analysis using BET displayed 684 m2/g surface area SBET and 0.36 cm3/g total pore volume with nitrogen isotherm of type IV. It was demonstrated that the H3PO4 concentration used in the impregnation stage was suitable for the development of the surface area and pore volumes and an effective chemical to manipulate the pore structure and size distribution towards the optimum conditions. The findings obtained from the current study proven the potential of Nipah banana peel to be used as a natural precursor towards the development of biomass-based activated carbon in order to enhance the usage of green water treatment agents and maintaining environmental sustainability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11085-11098
Number of pages14
JournalBiomass Conversion and Biorefinery
Volume13
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023

Keywords

  • Activated carbon
  • BET surface area
  • Banana peel
  • FT-IR
  • Phosphoric acid

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Nipah (Musa Acuminata Balbisiana) banana peel as a lignocellulosic precursor for activated carbon: characterization study after carbonization process with phosphoric acid impregnated activated carbon'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this