Multidrug resistance-encoding gene in Citrobacter freundii isolated from healthy laying chicken in Blitar District, Indonesia

Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum, Freshinta Jellia Wibisono, Dian Ayu Permatasari, Mustofa Helmi Effendi, Emmanuel Nnabuike Ugbo

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background and Aim: The increasing prevalence of resistance (MDR) of Enterobacteriaceae in Indonesia has caused concern regarding human health. Citrobacter freundii reportedly targets the gastrointestinal tract of animals and is a common cause of foodborne diseases associated with diarrhea, peritonitis, meningitis, brain abscess, bacteremia, and urinary tract infection. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MDR and the presence of Class 1 integron-encoding genes in C. freundii isolates obtained from cloacal swabs of healthy laying chickens in Blitar district, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty-five cloacal swab samples were collected from 33 farms in Blitar over a period of 4 months. Standard microbiological techniques such as bacterial culture in MacConkey agar, Simmons citrate agar, and triple sugar iron agar and biochemical tests such as the indole test were performed to identify the isolates. The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of C. freundii isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method, and MDR-encoding genes (Class 1 integron) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Out of 165 cloacal swab samples, 7 (4.24%) were positive for C. freundii. Citrobacter freundii was highly resistant to erythromycin (71.43%) and moderately to streptomycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (all 42.86%); however, it showed low resistance to ampicillin (28.57%). All isolates were found to exhibit MDR. Only 1 (14.29%) of the seven C. freundii isolates harbored a Class 1 integron gene. This study revealed that Class 1 integron-encoding genes have a low prevalence in C. freundii isolated from healthy laying chickens in Blitar, Indonesia. Conclusion: Poultry animals can play a role in the transmission of resistance genes to humans due to the MDR of Enterobacteriaceae, including C. freundii in the intestines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-166
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of One Health
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Citrobacter freundii
  • Class 1 integron gene
  • human health
  • laying chickens
  • multidrug resistance


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