Purpose: Shoulder prostheses designed and used around the world may not fit an Asian shoulder. Normal shoulder morphology in Asian population had been reported, ie, Chinese, Indian, Japanese, and Thai populations, but no data from the Indonesian population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the glenohumeral joint in the normal Indonesian population, identify its normal values, and compare them with those of other populations in the literature. Patients and Methods: Images for analysis were computed tomography (CT) scans of 85 normal shoulders from 71 patients who had CT scans for another diagnosis. Morphometry of the humeral head and glenoid were measured using 3D reconstruction. Gender differences and correlations between age, height, and glenohumeral morphometry were evaluated. Indonesians’ glenohumeral morphometry was compared with those of other populations in the literature. Results: In the normal Indonesian population, the mean of humeral head inclination (HHI), height (HHH), diameter in sagittal plane (DS), diameter in frontal plane (DF), radius of curvature in sagittal plane (RS), and radius of curvature in frontal plane (RF) were 134.1°, 15.6mm, 39.3mm, 41.3mm, 20.4mm, and 21.4mm, respectively. The glenoid height (GH), upper width (GUW), lower width (GLW), inclination (GI), and version (GV) mean values were 34.2mm, 18.4mm, 24.5mm, 74.0mm, and 12.3mm, respectively. There was a significant difference in HHH, DS, DF, RS, RF, GH, GUW, GLW between males and females. Except for HHI and GI, glenohumeral morphometry was correlated with patient height. Age was not correlated with any glenohumeral morphometry. Conclusion: In the Indonesian population, males had a larger humeral head and glenoid than females, and the size of the humeral head and glenoid was correlated to body height. Indonesians’ humeral head and glenoid sizes were smaller than those of Western populations, but close to those of other Asian populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)459-469
Number of pages11
JournalOrthopedic Research and Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Asian shoulder
  • CT shoulder
  • Indonesian shoulder morphology
  • glenoid
  • head humerus


Dive into the research topics of 'Morphology of Humeral Head and Glenoid in Normal Shoulder of Indonesian Population'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this