Mono-Parasitic and Poly-Parasitic Intestinal Infections among Children Aged 36–45 Months in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

Alpha F. Athiyyah, Ingrid S. Surono, Reza G. Ranuh, Andy Darma, Sukmawati Basuki, Lynda Rossyanti, Subijanto M. Sudarmo, Koen Venema

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The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection remains high in developing countries, especially because of geographic and socio-demographic factors. This study aimed to evaluate intestinal parasitic infection, as well as its risk factors, among children aged 36–45 months in a rural area (North Kodi) and an urban area (Kupang) of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Anthropometry, socio-demographic factors and personal hygiene practices were assessed. A total of 214 children participated in the study, and 200 stool samples were collected for intestinal parasite examination. Approximately 30.5% (61/200) of the children were infected with one or more intestinal parasites (67.2%; 41/61 being mono-parasitic infections and 32.8%; 20/61 being poly-parasitic infections). A total of 85 intestinal parasites were detected, consisting of 35.3% (30/85) protozoa and 64.7% (55/85) helminths. The predominant protozoa were Giardia lamblia (43%; 13/30) and Blastocystis spp. (33.3%; 10/30), whereas the predominant helminths were Trichuris trichiura (50.9%; 28/55) and Ascaris lumbricoides (43.6%; 24/55). Moreover, intestinal parasitic infection was associated with rural area (OR 4.5; 95%CI 2.3–8.6); the absence of treatment with deworming drugs (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.3–5.0); sanitation facilities without a septic tank (OR 4.3; 95%CI 2.1–8.5); unclean water as a source of drinking water (OR 4.67; 95%CI 2.4–9.4); no handwashing practice after defecation (OR 3.2; 95%CI 1.4–7.3); and stunted children (OR 4.4; 95%CI 2.3–8.3). In conclusion, poly-parasitic infections were common in this study. Poor personal hygiene practice and sanitation factors contributed to the high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in 36–45-month-old children in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number45
JournalTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • East Nusa Tenggara
  • Indonesia
  • helminth
  • intestinal parasitic infection
  • protozoa
  • young children


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