Mono-Parasitic and Poly-Parasitic Intestinal Infections among Children Aged 36–45 Months in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

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The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection remains high in developing countries, especially because of geographic and socio-demographic factors. This study aimed to evaluate intestinal parasitic infection, as well as its risk factors, among children aged 36–45 months in a rural area (North Kodi) and an urban area (Kupang) of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Anthropometry, socio-demographic factors and personal hygiene practices were assessed. A total of 214 children participated in the study, and 200 stool samples were collected for intestinal parasite examination. Approximately 30.5% (61/200) of the children were infected with one or more intestinal parasites (67.2%; 41/61 being mono-parasitic infections and 32.8%; 20/61 being poly-parasitic infections). A total of 85 intestinal parasites were detected, consisting of 35.3% (30/85) protozoa and 64.7% (55/85) helminths. The predominant protozoa were Giardia lamblia (43%; 13/30) and Blastocystis spp. (33.3%; 10/30), whereas the predominant helminths were Trichuris trichiura (50.9%; 28/55) and Ascaris lumbricoides (43.6%; 24/55). Moreover, intestinal parasitic infection was associated with rural area (OR 4.5; 95%CI 2.3–8.6); the absence of treatment with deworming drugs (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.3–5.0); sanitation facilities without a septic tank (OR 4.3; 95%CI 2.1–8.5); unclean water as a source of drinking water (OR 4.67; 95%CI 2.4–9.4); no handwashing practice after defecation (OR 3.2; 95%CI 1.4–7.3); and stunted children (OR 4.4; 95%CI 2.3–8.3). In conclusion, poly-parasitic infections were common in this study. Poor personal hygiene practice and sanitation factors contributed to the high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in 36–45-month-old children in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number45
JournalTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • East Nusa Tenggara
  • Indonesia
  • helminth
  • intestinal parasitic infection
  • protozoa
  • young children


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