Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of norovirus infection in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in East Java, Indonesia in 2015–2019

Takako Utsumi, Maria Inge Lusida, Zayyin Dinana, Rury Mega Wahyuni, Soegeng Soegijanto, Soetjipto, Alpha Fardah Athiyyah, Subijanto Marto Sudarmo, Reza Gunadi Ranuh, Andy Darma, Juniastuti, Laura Navika Yamani, Yen Hai Doan, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Koji Ishii, Chieko Matsui, Lin Deng, Takayuki Abe, Kazuhiko Katayama, Ikuo Shoji

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18 Citations (Scopus)


Noroviruses are recognized as a leading cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among individuals of all ages worldwide, especially in children <5 years old. We investigated the epidemiology of noroviruses among hospitalized children at two hospitals in East Java, Indonesia. Stool samples were collected from 966 children with AGE during September 2015–July 2019. All samples were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the amplification of both the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and the capsid genes of noroviruses. The genotypes were determined by phylogenetic analyses. In 2015–2019, noroviruses were detected in 12.3% (119/966) of the samples. Children <2 years old showed a significantly higher prevalence than those ≥2 years old (P = 0.01). NoV infections were observed throughout the year, with the highest prevalence in December. Based on our genetic analyses of RdRp, GII.[P31] (43.7%, 31/71) was the most prevalent RdRp genotype, followed by GII.[P16] (36.6%, 26/71). GII.[P31] was a dominant genotype in 2016 and 2018, whereas GII.[P16] was a dominant genotype in 2015 and 2017. Among the capsid genotypes, the most predominant norovirus genotype from 2015 to 2018 was GII.4 Sydney_2012 (33.6%, 40/119). The most prevalent genotype in each year was GII.13 in 2015, GII.4 Sydney_2012 in 2016 and 2018, and GII.3 in 2017. Based on the genetic analyses of RdRp and capsid sequences, the strains were clustered into 13 RdRp/capsid genotypes; 12 of them were discordant, e.g., GII.4 Sydney[P31], GII.3[P16], and GII.13[P16]. The predominant genotype in each year was GII.13[P16] in 2015, GII.4 Sydney[P31] in 2016, GII.3[P16] in 2017, and GII.4 Sydney[P31] in 2018. Our results demonstrate high detection rates and genetic diversity of norovirus GII genotypes in pediatric AGE samples from Indonesia. These findings strengthen the importance of the continuous molecular surveillance of emerging norovirus strains.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104703
JournalInfection, Genetics and Evolution
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Children
  • Epidemiology
  • Indonesia
  • Norovirus
  • RdRp/capsid genotype


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