Modified TiO₂ nanotubes-zeolite composite photocatalyst: Characteristics, microstructure and applicability for degrading triclocarban

Siti Nor Hidayah Arifin, Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed, Adel Ali Al-Gheethi, Lai Chin Wei, G. Yashni, Nurina Fitriani, Mu Naushad, Ahmad B. Albadarin

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3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The study explored the characteristics and effectiveness of modified TiO2 nanotubes with zeolite as a composite photocatalyst (MTNZC) for the degradation of triclocarban (TCC) from the aqueous solution. MTNZC samples have been produced via electrochemical anodisation (ECA) followed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Three independent factors selected include MTNZC size (0.5–1 cm2), pH (3–10), and irradiation time (10–60 min). The observation revealed that the surface of Ti substrate by the 40 V of anodisation and 3 h of calcination was covered with the array ordered, smooth and optimum elongated nanotubes with average tube length was approximately 5.1 μm. EDS analysis proved the presence of Si, Mg, Al, and Na on MTNZC due to the chemical composition present in the zeolite. The average crystallite size of TiO₂ nanotubes increased from 2.07 to 3.95 nm by increasing anodisation voltage (10, 40, and 60 V) followed by 450 °C of calcination for 1, 3, and 6 h, respectively. The optimisation by RSM shows the F-value (36.12), the p-value of all responses were less than 0.0001, and the 95% confidence level of the model by all the responses indicated the model was significant. The R2 in the range of 0.9433–0.9906 showed the suitability of the model to represent the actual relationship among the parameters. The photocatalytic degradation rate of TCC from the first and the fifth cycles were 94.2 and 77.4%, indicating the applicability of MTNZC to be used for several cycles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number132278
JournalChemosphere
Volume287
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • Electrochemical anodisation
  • Electrophoretic deposition
  • Photocatalytic degradation
  • Triclocarban
  • Zeolite

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