The study focuses on empirically addressing the disputes among the researchers over the source of injustice in the tourism industry created by the class structure. This is firstly related to the theory of postindustry which suggests that class should be more human. Secondly it relates to Marx's theory that class should be more orderly. This study used a concurrent triangulation mixed methodology. The analysis of the interclass relationship shows a strengthening class i.e. the professional class (54.5%) with the higher bargaining power against the capitalist class (1.5%) and the proletarian class (44%). This condition reinforces the post-industrial theory which shows that the open system, technological advances, and specification facilitate the mastery of expertise towards a higher level of professionalism based on the border-crossing protean career and not a consistent proletarian process. This study estimates that the transformation of the proletariat class into the new class structures is increasingly stronger, in line with the growing tendency of the professional class towards a dual position as the workers and professionals-capitalists range from small to the big scale individuals and business owners. The development and improvement of public and private tourism organization and worker development is critical for sustainable growth.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalAfrican Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Bali
  • Class
  • Marx theory
  • Mobility
  • Tourism industry


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