Metformin induced autophagy in diabetes mellitus – Tuberculosis co-infection patients: A case study

Bernadette Dian Novita, Mulyohadi Ali, Agung Pranoto, Endang Isbandiati Soediono, Ni Made Mertaniasih

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Metformin (MET) is a potential combination drug to elevate anti-TB efficacy. However, the clinical effect, especially smear reversion, during metformin applied with anti-tuberculosis and insulin in patients with type 2 DM newly TB co-infection were remain unknown. An observational clinical study was done in DM newly TB co-infection outpatients at Surabaya Paru Hospital. This study evaluated MET therapy, at least 2 months, accompanying with insulin and anti-TB regimens and compared to comparison group. The smear, microtubule-associated Protein1 Light Chain 3B (MAP1LC3B) level, as the presentation of autophagy, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) level, Interferon (IFN)-γ and Interleukin (IL)-10 levels were evaluated twice. From 42 participants in this study, 22 participants of observation group that received additional MET therapy, 100% had sputum smear reversion after 2-months intensive phase of anti-TB therapy. Whereas 25% of 20 participants of comparison group did not undergo reversion inserts sputum smear. As conclusion, MET has the potential of being an additive combination therapy to enhance the bactericidal effect of anti-TB on DM-TB coinfection patients. Metformin enhances the effects of anti-TB and insulin therapy in increasing the smear reversion by increasing autophagy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)64-69
Number of pages6
JournalIndian Journal of Tuberculosis
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


  • AFB smear reversion
  • Autophagy
  • Metformin
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus-tuberculosis co-infection patients


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