Metal-Doped Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanomaterials for Photocatalytic Environmental Applications—A Review

Geetha Palani, Retna Apsari, Marlia M. Hanafiah, Katta Venkateswarlu, Sivarama Krishna Lakkaboyana, Karthik Kannan, Anilkumar Thaghalli Shivanna, Abubakr M. Idris, Chappidi Hazarathaiah Yadav

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


In the current world situation, population and industrial growth have become major prob-lems for energy and environmental concerns. Extremely noxious pollutants such as heavy metal ions, dyes, antibiotics, phenols, and pesticides in water are the main causes behind deprived water quality leading to inadequate access to clean water. In this connection, graphite carbon nitride (GCN or g-C3N4) a nonmetallic polymeric material has been utilized extensively as a visible-light-responsive photocatalyst for a variety of environmental applications. This review focuses on recent developments in the design and photocatalytic applications of metal-doped GCN-based nanomaterials in CO2 pho-toreduction, water splitting toward hydrogen production, bacterial disinfection, and organic pollutant degradation. Additionally, this review discusses various methods of using GCN-based materials to optimize dye sensitization, metal deposition, ion doping, and their environmental applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1754
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2022


  • environmental applications
  • graphitic carbon nitride
  • metal-doped materials
  • nanomaterials
  • photocatalysts


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