Mechanism of Antimicrobial Resistance and Red Ginger as the Solution for Source of Natural Antioxidant: A Brief Review

Ni Kadek Yunita Sari, Anak Agung Ayu Putri Permatasari, Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih, Almando Geraldi, Putu Angga Wiradana, I. Gede Widhiantara, Novaria Sari Dewi Panjaitan, Ni Nyoman Ari Mardianti

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this review, we describe the known mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance which was increasing in this era, due to the misuse of antimicrobial agents such as antibiotics, or genetic and phenotypic mechanisms. The special concerns addressed by designated researchers in their study and WHO in their observations and reports, regarding the types or strains of bacteria with antimicrobial resistances, were described. In addition, the predicted mechanisms that promote the development and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance, such as bacterial biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer, genetic mutations, free DNA which contains antimicrobial resistance genes, and plasmids transfer through transformation or conjugation from bacterial cell to cell were well described. In addition, we also tried to describe the use of Z. officinale. The antimicrobial capabilities of this herbal plant are attributed to its capacity to create many secondary metabolites with rather complicated structures that have antibacterial and antioxidant characteristics. Z. officinale had been used for many kinds of disease treatment traditionally. And along the way, the advance techniques of research in chemistry and biology fields had found out the composition and bioactive compounds. The common online databases such as PubMed, Semantic Scholar, Crossref, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science (WoS) were utilized in this review to conduct literature searches. According to the recent progress of antimicrobial cases observed, the efforts to strengthen the surveillance, and general health systems, tightened the antimicrobial medicine distribution rules, and education for the public are indeed needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
JournalIndonesian Journal of Pharmacy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Zingiber officinale
  • bacterial infection
  • biofilm formation
  • gene transfer


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