Measurement Invariance of Personal Well-Being Index (PWI-8) Across 26 Countries

Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Jarosław P. Piotrowski, Jan Cieciuch, Byron G. Adams, Evgeny N. Osin, Rahkman Ardi, Sergiu Bălţătescu, Arbinda Lal Bhomi, Amanda Clinton, Gisela T. de Clunie, Carla Esteves, Valdiney Gouveia, Ashraf Hosseini, Hooria Seyedhosseini Ghaheh, Narine Khachatryan, Shanmukh Vasant Kamble, Anna Kawula, Kadi Liik, Eva Letovancova, Sara Malo CerratoCarles Alsinet Mora, Sofya Nartova-Bochaver, Marija Nikolic, Joonha Park, Elena Paspalanova, Győző Pék, Joanna Różycka-Tran, Ha Truong Thi Khanh, Takashi Tsubakita, Christin Melanie Vauclair, Anna Włodarczyk, John Maltby

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27 Citations (Scopus)


This report examines the measurement invariance of the Personal Well-being Index with 8 items (PWI-8). University students (N = 5731) from 26 countries completed the measure either through paper and pencil or electronic mode. We examined uni-dimensional structure of PWI and performed a Multi-group CFA to assess the measurement invariance across the 26 countries, using conventional approach and the alignment procedure. The findings provide evidence of configural and partial metric invariance, as well as partial scalar invariance across samples. The findings suggest that PWI-8 can be used to examine correlates of life satisfaction across all included countries, however it is impossible to compare raw scores across countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1697-1711
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Happiness Studies
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017


  • Cross-cultural studies
  • Measurement invariance
  • Personal well-being index


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