Management Congenital Heart Disease Surgery during COVID-19: A Review Article

Nanda Rachmad Putra Gofur, Aisyah Rachmadani Putri Gofur, Soesilaningtyas, Rizki Nur Rachman Putra Gofur, Mega Kahdina, Hernalia Martadila Putri, Zamros Yuzadi Bin Mohd Yusof

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Congenital heart disease is a form of heart abnormality that has been acquired since the newborn. The clinical course of this disorder varies from mild to severe. In mild forms, there are often no symptoms, and no abnormalities are found on clinical examination. Whereas in severe CHD, symptoms have been visible since birth and require immediate action. Generally, the management of congenital heart disease includes non-surgical management and surgical management. Non-surgical management includes medical management and interventional cardiology. Medical management is generally secondary as a result of complications from heart disease itself or due to other accompanying disorders. In this case, the goal of medical therapy is to relieve symptoms and signs in addition to preparing for surgery. The duration and method of administration of drugs depend on the type of disease at hand. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which led to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, was initially reported in Wuhan, China in December, 2019. The rapid rise in the number of cases worldwide led to hospitals struggling to cope with the sudden influx of patients. This has had a ripple effect on other parts of health care as manpower and supplies needed to be reallocated. Within cardiology, this has led to outpatient appointments and elective surgeries being reduced and/or postponed. COVID-19 appears to have a complicated relationship with cardiovascular system, as studies have suggested cardiovascular diseases increase disease severity and mortality rates in those who are infected. However, the virus has also been shown to cause cardiovascular complications such as acute myocardial injury, heart failure, and arrhythmia. Coronavirus may also cause myocardial injury via the cytokine storm that occurs in response to a possible large immune response during the infection. Cardiac involvement such as right ventricular failure and congestion can either be a result of respiratory distress or direct cardiac injury caused by the virus, as suggested by the raised cardiac troponin I in critical patients compared to non-critical patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)344-348
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Chd disease
  • Covid 19
  • Management


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