A sedentary lifestyle and an unhealthy diet increase the risk of obesity. People with obesity experience adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, which increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines, thereby increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle modification using non-pharmacological approaches such as physical exercise prevents increased morbidity through its anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different types of exercise on decreased proinflammatory cytokines in young adult females with obesity. A total of 36 female students from Malang City aged 21.86 ± 1.39 years with body mass index (BMI) of 30.93 ± 3.51 kg/m2 were recruited and followed three different types of exercise interventions: moderate-intensity endurance training (MIET), moderate-intensity resistance training (MIRT), and moderate-intensity combined training (MICT). The exercise was performed at a frequency of 3x/week for 4 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.0, using the paired sample t-test. The results revealed that serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased between pre-training and post-training in the three types of exercise (MIET, MIRT, and MICT) (p ≤ 0.001). The percentage change in IL-6 levels from pre-training in CTRL was (0.76 ± 13.58%), in MIET was (−82.79 ± 8.73%), in MIRT was (−58.30 ± 18.05%), in MICT was (−96.91 ± 2.39%), and (p ≤ 0.001). There was a percentage change in TNF-α levels from pre-training in CTRL (6.46 ± 12.13%), MIET (−53.11 ± 20.02%), MIRT (−42.59 ± 21.64%), and MICT (−73.41 ± 14.50%), and (p ≤ 0.001). All three types of exercise consistently reduced proinflammatory cytokines such as serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α.

Original languageEnglish
Article number54
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • combined training
  • cytokines
  • obesity
  • pro-inflammatory
  • sedentary lifestyle


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