Load Frequency Control Using Golden Eagle Optimization for Multi-Area Power System Connected Through AC/HVDC Transmission and Supported With Hybrid Energy Storage Devices

Irfan Ahmed Khan, Hazlie Mokhlis, Nurulafiqah Nadzirah Mansor, Hazlee Azil Illias, Muhammad Usama, Amil Daraz, Li Wang, Lilik Jamilatul Awalin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The reliability of a power system depends on its ability to handle fluctuations and varying load demands, as uncontrolled frequency deviations can lead to load-shedding and blackouts. Optimally tuned controllers are essential for Load Frequency Control (LFC) applications to efficiently stabilize the power system by minimizing frequency undershoots, overshoots, and settling time. This paper proposed the application of novel Golden Eagle Optimization (GEO) algorithm for the optimal tuning of the LFC controller, which has not been previously employed in any LFC applications. Moreover, this paper presents the first-ever implementation of a hybrid energy storage system consisting of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB) and Super Magnetic Energy Storage System (SMES) coupled with AC/HVDC transmission lines in a multi-area power system. A GEO optimized Proportional-Integrative-Derivative (GEO-PID) robust controller is designed with the Integral Time Absolute Error (ITAE) objective function to enhance the power system's stability. The proposed controller is tested on two and four areas power systems considering the sensitivity and nonlinearity of the power systems. A robustness test is also performed to verify the stability of the system under randomly chosen loading conditions. In comparison with particle swarm optimization, dragonfly algorithm, sine cosine algorithm, ant lion optimization, and whale optimization algorithm, the GEO-PID controller significantly reduced the settling time up to 80% for different area's frequencies. Simulation results indicate that the proposed controller outperforms other recent optimization algorithms by effectively dampening the frequency and tie-line deviations with less settling times, as well as reduced frequency undershoots and overshoots.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44672-44695
Number of pages24
JournalIEEE Access
Volume11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Keywords

  • Energy storage system
  • golden eagle optimization
  • load frequency control
  • super magnetic energy storage system (SMES)
  • vanadium redox flow battery

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