The hypoxic environment is a substantial factor in maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation of the cell cultures. Low oxygen is known as a potent chondrogenesis stimulus in stem cells that is important for clinical application and engineering of functional cartilage. Hypoxia can potentially induce angiogenesis process by secretion of cytokines. This systematic review goal is to discover the effect of hypoxic condition on tendon/ ligament culture and the best oxygen level of hypoxia for in vitro and in vivo studies. We included 21 articles. A comprehensive review of this database confirms that the hypoxic condition is a substantial factor in the maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation of ligament/tendon cultures. Cell proliferation in the severe hypoxic (oxygen concentration of 1%) group at 24 hours post-cultivation was considered significant, but cell proliferation was markedly inhibited in the severe hypoxic group after 48 h.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)595-600
Number of pages6
JournalAdvanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Culture
  • Hypoxic condition
  • Ligament
  • Tendon


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