Lifestyle as a Risk Factor of High Periodontitis Prevalence with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Surabaya

Titiek Berniyanti, Retno Palupi, Dini Setiyowati, Aulia Rahmadhani, Dinda Novia, Novitasari Mira Afanda, Nadya Innasa Khairani, Annisa Zahra Nurlaili, Fidelia Kartikasari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Periodontitis is a chronic inflammation infectious disease of the supporting teeth which is,,,1irreversible with destructive characteristics due to failure to eradicate pathogens that attack the subgingival,,,1epithelium in the biofilm. This disease has the potential to worsen the quality of life,,,,1especially life expectancy. Data confirm that diabetes is a major risk factor for periodontitis.,,,1Evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and,,,1periodontitis. T2DM increases the risk of periodontitis, and periodontal inflammation negatively,,,1impacts on blood sugar control and tooth loss.,,,1This study identified lifestyle as a risk factor for high prevalence of periodontitis with and without,,,1T2DM. This study was an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional approach.,,,1Measurement of periodontal status was done according to the 2015 World Health Organization’s,,,1(WHO) Oral Health Basic Methods Survey Standard. During the process, bleeding on probing and,,,1pocket depth was measured, and lifestyle was identified using a questionnaire. Data analysis was,,,1performed using the Chi-square difference test.,,,1There were significant differences between lifestyles in the four health status groups except oral,,,1hygiene in the periodontitis group with periodontitis-type 2 diabetes, diet in the normal group with,,,1periodontitis, and exercise in the normal group with periodontitis being relatively similar. Poor oral,,,1hygiene, poor diet, and lack of activity are risk factors for T2DM, periodontitis-DM type 2, and,,,1without DM type 2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1503-1508
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Blood sugar
  • Dm type 2
  • Healthy lifestyle
  • Infectious disease
  • Oral hygiene
  • Periodontal status


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