Macronutrient and micronutrient intake in dietary habits contributed to dyspeptic symptoms in Indonesia

Muhammad Miftahussurur, Ricky Indra Alfaray, Yudith Annisa Ayu Rezkitha, Kartika Afrida Fauzia, Hasan Maulahela, Virly Nanda Muzellina, Luciana Sophie Mariana Rotty, Yoma Sari Namara, Azzaki Abubakar, Syifa Mustika, Neneng Ratnasari, Agus Yudho Santosa, Marselino Richardo, I. Dewa Nyoman Wibawa, I. Ketut Adnyana, Purnawati Hustina Rachman, Brian Eka Rachman, Dalla Doohan, Langgeng Agung Waskito, Yoshio YamaokaAli Khomsan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Dyspepsia is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder and assessing the nutrient correlation is important to improve the patient’s dyspepsia. We analyzed the association of the macronutrients and micronutrients with dyspepsia also its correlation to the severity of dyspepsia. Methods: We analyzed 378 questionnaires from individuals with dyspepsia symptoms in 15 centers across Indonesia, including sites located on the three largest islands (Java, Sumatra, and Sulawesi) were collected. This research uses the 24-Hour Recall Questionnaire and Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (S-FFQ) to determine the foods (nutrients) eaten that become a risk factor for dyspepsia. The symptoms of dyspepsia were assessed using the Gastrointestinal Symptom score (GIS). Results: The result revealed that 90.5 % of respondents (342/378) had dyspeptic symptoms. Dyspepsia was likely associated with the senile age group 50-59 (p=0.022) and GIS score was associated with the region (p=0.001; r=0.173). Macronutrients and micronutrients that correlated with dyspepsia are low consumption of fat (p=0.032) and magnesium (p=0.025). Macro and micronutrients intake were varied in each region and each bivariate analysis showed that almost all micro and macronutrient intakes were significantly different from each dyspepsia symptom. Conclusion: Macronutrients and micronutrients intake were associated with dyspepsia diagnosis and severity, especially consumption of fat and magnesium. The age, culture, and geographical region of the nutrient intake should also be considered in dyspepsia patient management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)266-275
Number of pages10
JournalGaceta Medica de Caracas
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022


  • Indonesia
  • dyspepsia
  • macronutrient
  • micronutrient
  • nutritional Status


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