2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: In some hospitals in low/middle-income countries, methods to determine the bilirubin level in newborn infants are unavailable and based on a clinical evaluation, namely a clinical score designed by Kramer. In this study, we evaluated if this score can be used to identify those infants that need phototherapy. Method: Infants admitted between November 2018 and June 2019 to three hospitals in Surabaya, Indonesia were included. The jaundice intensity was scored using the Kramer score. Blood was sampled for total serum bilirubin (TSB) measurement. The infants were categorized into Treatment Needed (TN) group when treatment with phototherapy was indicated and the No Treatment Needed (NTN) group when phototherapy was not indicated, based on the Indonesian Guideline for hyperbilirubinemia. Result: A total of 280 infants with a mean birth weight of 2744.6 ± 685.8 g and a gestational age of 37.3 ± 2.3 weeks were included. Twenty-seven of 113 (24%) infants with Kramer score 2 needed phototherapy, compared with 41 of 90 (46%) infants with score 3 and 20 of 28 (71%) of infants with score 4. The percentage of infants that needed phototherapy was higher with decreasing gestational age. Conclusion: The Kramer score is an invalid method to distinguish between those infants needing phototherapy and those infants where this treatment is not indicated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6173
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2021


  • Hyperbilirubinemia
  • Indonesia guideline
  • Kramer score
  • Phototherapy
  • Reliability


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