Background: Cesarean section rates are increasing worldwide. Obstetrics and gynecology residents are required to be experts in this surgery to provide safe procedures. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic situation, an alternative teaching strategy is needed to achieve adequate cesarean section skills. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of video, mannequins, and the combination of video mannequins on residents’ knowledge and confidence regarding cesarean section. Method: A quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test designs was done. Based on stratified random sampling, 33 obstetrics and gynecology residents involved as study participant. Three groups were formed and received different interventions, learning using videos, mannequins, and a combination of video-mannequins. Two kinds of questionnaires were used to examine residents’ knowledge and their confidence levels. The collected data were analyzed statistically. Results: Video (0.42(CI95%-0.11–0.9)), mannequin simulation (0.60(CI95%-0.04–1.25)), and the combination of video-mannequin (1.3(CI95%0.73–1.93)) significantly increased resident's knowledge regarding caesarean section skill. Study participant showed increased scores regarding confidence in their caesarean section skills according to all learning subjects (p < 0.05) but a difference in confidence level occurred in level C- 7th semester residents (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of videos and mannequin simulations is the best method for increasing knowledge of cesarean sections, compared to single video and mannequin simulations. The confidence level has been shown to increase in all subject studies but the effectiveness at each level of resident needs to be investigated further.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13907
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • Cesarean section
  • Confidence improvement
  • Learning media
  • Study method


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