Intervertebral disc degeneration is one of the serious problems in vertebral system damage. Symptoms that late detected and similar with other vertebral diseases make this process such a "silent disease". There are several theories regarding the risk factors and mechanisms of intervertebral disc degeneration, ranging from exogenous or endogenous factors related to the structure of the disc, the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus. Some examples of mechanisms that are often discussed are apoptosis, autophagy, pro-inflammatory cytokine storm and increased matrix catabolism. This pathological process will accelerate the disc cell senescence due to reduced proliferation, compromised self-repair, increased inflammatory response, and enhanced catabolic metabolism. This review article aims to discuss the mechanism of intervertebral disc degeneration from various possible causative factors and possible therapies that can be used in accordance with the cell degeneration mechanism.
- Annulus fibrosus (AF)
- Intervertbral disc degeneration (IDD)
- Intervertebral disc (IVD)
- Nucleus pulposus (NP)