11 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to analyze the interaction of primaquine (PQ), chloroquine (CQ), and liposomes to support the design of optimal liposomal delivery for hepatic stage malaria infectious disease. The liposomes were composed of hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(methoxy[polyethyleneglycol]-2000), prepared by thin film method, then evaluated for physicochemical and spectrospic characteristics. The calcein release was further evaluated to determine the effect of drug co-loading on liposomal membrane integrity. The results showed that loading PQ and CQ into liposomes produced changes in the infrared spectra of the diester phosphate and carbonyl ester located in the polar part of the phospholipid, in addition to the alkyl group (CH2) in the nonpolar portion. Moreover, the thermogram revealed the loss of the endothermic peak of liposomes dually loaded with PQ and CQ at 186.6 °C, which is identical to that of the phospholipid. However, no crystallinity changes were detected through powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Moreover, PQ, with either single or dual loading, produced the higher calcein release profiles from the liposomes than that of CQ. The dual loading of PQ and CQ tends to interact with the polar head group of the phosphatidylcholine bilayer membrane resulted in an increase in water permeability of the liposomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12420
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


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