Introduction: The prevalence of smoking-attributable diseases is growing in Indonesia, as is the number of smokers. Many people are not aware of the dangers of passive smoking with regard to smoking-attributable diseases. The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of passive smoking on smoking-attributable diseases. Methods: This study used descriptive observational research with a case- control design and was carried out by one of the hospitals in Blitar, Indonesia. It lasted from August to December 2017. The three most diseases that are considered smoking related: Stroke, coronary heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proportional random sampling was conducted, and analysis was done by calculating the prevalence ratio. Results: There was 266 participant. The most smoking-attributable disease was stroke, affecting 103 participant (38.7%). The results of this study showed that passive smokers were 7 times more likely to develop a smoking-attributable disease (p = 0,000; OR = 6.96 ; 95% CI = 3.16 < OR < 5.31). Active smokers were three times more likely to develop a smoking-attributable disease (p = 0.00; OR = 3.39; 95% CI = 1.84 < OR < 6.24), Conclusion: Passive smoking has a heavy association on the evidence of smoking-attributable disease, which highlights the importance of creating regulations regarding smoke-free areas to reduce the number of passive smokers both at home and at places of work.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22-26
Number of pages5
JournalMalaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Active Smokers
  • Passive Smokers
  • Risk factors cardiovascular disease
  • Smoking-attributable disease


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