Indonesian Foreign Policy under the Jokowi Administration: Variations on Traditional Ideas

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Since independence in 1945, Indonesia has managed to carry out its foreign policy according to a unique doctrine described as "independent and active"(bebas dan aktif). To be independent means that Indonesia does not side with world powers, while being active means vigorously carrying out peaceful policies and actively participating in the peaceful settlement of international issues. The doctrine is not a neutral policy but does not align and bind the country with the superpowers or any military pact. Instead, being independent and active primarily serves the national interest while allowing the Indonesian government to collaborate with other nations. However, the doctrine's implementation has varied according to the different interpretations of successive presidents. This paper explains Indonesia's independent and active foreign policy during President Joko Widodo's presidency. It contends that while the doctrine has continued to underlie Indonesia's foreign policy, the formulation of President Joko Widodo's foreign policy is unique in its practical approach, prioritizing the national interest and the domestic advantages of foreign relations. In the president's worldview, foreign policy has been instrumental in promoting the nation's development.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2350005
JournalIssues and Studies
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023


  • economic diplomacy
  • functional and pragmatic foreign policy
  • worldview


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