Pesticides used massively in the agricultural sector would cause many poisoning and serious health problems. Organophosphate pesticides have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. This study aimed to compare thyroid hormone levels between the sprayers chronically exposed to pesticides and thecontrol respondents who had never been exposed to pesticides. This study was an analytical observational with a cross-sectional design. The total numberof respondents was 150, 50 as sprayers and 100 as control respondents. The venous blood samples were examined using the Enzyme-Linked ImmunosorbentAssay (ELISA). The findings significantly showed that the sprayer had a higher level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (4.776 ± 1.1166), lower triiodothyronine (T3) (108.822 ± 18.810), and lower thyroxine (T4) (7.808 ± 1.067). Determinant factors among sprayers that significantly correlated to TSH levels wasage (p-value = 0.006); work duration (p-value = 0.000); personal protection equipment (PPE) (p-value = 0.045); body position (p-value = 0.014); type of pesticides (p-value = 0.004), correlated with T3levels was age (p-value = 0.037); body position (p-value = 0.045), correlated with T4levels was age (p-value =0.000); PPE (p-value = 0.045). It could be concluded that chronic organophosphate exposure would increase TSH and decrease T3and T4.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-16
Number of pages7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022


  • Endocrine-disrupting chemicals
  • Health risks
  • T3
  • T4
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone


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