Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospital workers before and after vaccination programme in East Java, Indonesia – a retrospective cohort study

Gatot Soegiarto, Dewajani Purnomosari, Laksmi Wulandari, Bagus Aulia Mahdi, Karin Dhia Fahmita, Satrio Tri Hadmoko, Hendra Ikhwan Gautama, Muhammad Edwin Prasetyo, Dewi Prasetyaningtyas, Pujo Prawiro Negoro, Nur Arafah, Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa, Anang Endaryanto, Desak Gede Agung Suprabawati, Damayanti Tinduh, Eka Basuki Rachmad, Erwin Astha Triyono, Joni Wahyuhadi, Catur Budi Keswardiono, Feby Elyana WardaniFitriyah Mayorita, Nunuk Kristiani, Ari Baskoro, Deasy Fetarayani, Wita Kartika Nurani, Delvac Oceandy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The incidence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) among healthcare workers (HCWs) is widespread. It is important to understand COVID-19 characteristics among HCWs before and after vaccination. We evaluated the incidence of COVID-19 among HCWs in East Java, Indonesia comparing the characteristics of the disease between the pre- vs post-vaccination periods. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted among HCWs in two major hospitals in East Java, Indonesia, between April 01, 2020, and Oct 31, 2021. All HCWs were offered vaccination with inactivated viral vaccine (CoronaVac) from Jan 15, 2021. Therefore, we divided the time of the study into the pre-vaccination period (between April 01, 2020, and Jan 14, 2021) and post-vaccination period (between Jan 15 and Oct 31, 2021). We then compared the pattern of COVID-19 infections, and hospitalisations between these periods. Findings: A total of 434 (15.1%) and 649 (22.6%) SARS-CoV-2 infections were reported among study participants (n = 2878) during the pre-vaccination and post-vaccination periods, respectively. The vaccine effectiveness was 73.3% during the first 3–4 months after vaccination but this decreased to 17.6% at 6–7 months after vaccination, which coincided with the emergence of the delta variant. The overall hospitalisation rate was reduced from 23.5% in the pre-vaccination period to 14.3% in the post-vaccination period. Hypertension appeared to be the strongest risk factor affecting hospitalisation in the pre-vaccination period. However, the risk due to hypertension was reduced in the post-vaccination period. Interpretation: The risk to contract COVID-19 remains high among HCWs in East Java, Indonesia. Vaccination is important to reduce infection and hospitalisation. It is essentially important to evaluate the characteristics of COVID-19 infection, hospitalisation, the impact of co-morbidities and vaccine effectiveness in order to improve the measures applied in protecting HCWs during the pandemic. Funding: Mandate Research Grant No: 1043/UN3.15/PT/2021, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100130
JournalThe Lancet Regional Health - Southeast Asia
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • COVID-19
  • Co-morbidity
  • Healthcare workers
  • Hospitalisation
  • Vaccine


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