In Vitro Anti-Amebic Activity of Cage Xanthones from Cratoxylum sumatranum Stem Bark against Entamoeba histolytica

Fendi Yoga Wardana, Defi Kartika Sari, Myrna Adianti, Adita Ayu Permanasari, Lidya Tumewu, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Aty Widyawaruyanti, Achmad Fuad Hafid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Amoebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica, which is a pathogenic species living on human colon tissues. The development of new drugs for anti-amebic are still very needed for clinical treatment. Objective: This aims to identify the compounds in Cratoxylum sumatranum for their anti-amoeba activity. Materials and Methods: In this study we used bioactivity-guided isolation and structural analysis to identified anti-amebic compounds from dichloromethane extract of Cratoxylum sumatranum stem bark. Their anti-amebic activity was determined by an in vitro cell-based assay against Entamoeba histolytica and an enzymatic assay on NAD kinase. Results: Two known compounds from the cage xanthone groups, namely cochinchinoxanthone (1) and cochinchinone D (2), were isolated. The structures of the cage xanthone compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic data analysis. Compound (1) showed the greatest level of anti-amebic activity both in cell-based and enzymatic assay, yielding IC50 values of 4.57 and 12.17 µg/mL, respectively. In contrast, compound (2) yielded IC50 values of 5.19 and 12.60 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: When considering the demonstrated anti-amebic activities, it becomes apparent that these compounds, isolated from Cratoxylum sumatranum stem bark, have the potential to be further developed into effective anti-amebic medicine against Entamoeba histolytica.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)452-458
Number of pages7
JournalPharmacognosy Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2020


  • Amoebiasis
  • Bioactivity-guided isolation
  • Cratoxylum sumatranum
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • NAD kinase


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