In vitro and in silico cholinesterase inhibitory potential of metabolites from Laurencia snackeyi (Weber-van Bosse) M. Masuda

Kishneth Palaniveloo, Kuan Hung Ong, Herland Satriawan, Shariza Abdul Razak, Suciati Suciati, Hsin Yi Hung, Shin Hirayama, Mohammed Rizman-Idid, Jen Kit Tan, Yoong Soon Yong, Siew Moi Phang

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes deterioration in intelligence and psychological activities. Yet, till today, no cure is available for AD. The marine environment is an important sink of bioactive compounds with neuroprotective potential with reduced adverse effects. Recently, we collected the red algae Laurencia snackeyi from Terumbu Island, Malaysia which is known to be rich in halogenated metabolites making it the most sought-after red algae for pharmaceutical studies. The red alga was identified based on basic morphological characteristics, microscopic observation and chemical data from literature. The purplish-brown algae was confirmed a new record. In Malaysia, this species is poorly documented in Peninsular Malaysia as compared to its eastern continent Borneo. Thus, this study intended to investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites present in the alga and its cholinesterase inhibiting potential for AD. The extract inhibited both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with IC50 values of 14.45 ± 0.34 μ g mL-1 and 39.59 ± 0.24 μ g mL-1, respectively. Subsequently, we isolated the synderanes, palisadin A (1), aplysistatin (2) and 5-acetoxypalisadin B (3) that was not exhibit potential. Mass spectrometry analysis detected at total of 33 additional metabolites. The computational aided molecular docking using the AChE and BChE receptors on all metabolites shortlisted 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (31) and 15-hydroxy-1-[2-(hydroxymethyl)-1-piperidinyl]prost-13-ene-1,9-dione (42) with best inhibitory properties, respectively with the lowest optimal combination of S-score and RMSD values. This study shows the unexplored potential of marine natural resources, however, obtaining sufficient biomass for detailed investigation is an uphill task. Regardless, there is a lot of potential for future prospects with a wide range of marine natural resources to study and the incorporation of synthetic chemistry, in vivo studies in experimental design.

Original languageEnglish
Article number337
Journal3 Biotech
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • Alzheimer’s
  • Chemotaxonomy
  • Laurencia snackeyi
  • Neurodegenerative
  • Rhodophyta
  • Secondary metabolites


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