Improving complementary feeding practice and child growth in Indonesia through family empowerment intervention

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Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of family empowerment intervention in improving complementary feeding practices and child growth in Indonesia. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to gather data from 60 mothers and their youngest children, aged 6-11 months, who participated in this projectfrom two urban areasin Surabaya, EastJava, Indonesia. The independent variable was an eleven-week family empowerment intervention, including pre- and post-test. The dependent variable was complementary feeding practice and child growth. Complementary feeding practice indicators consist of minimumdietary diversity (MDD), meal frequency (MMF), acceptable diet (MAD), energy, protein, and zinc adequacy, assessed using a 3×24 hour food recall. Child growth indicators consist of weight-for-age (WAZ), length/height-for-age (HAZ), and weight-forlength/height (WHZ) measured using an infantometer and baby scales. The data obtained were then analysed using the McNemar test, the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test, and the MannWhitney U test, with a significance level of a<0.05. Results: Family empowerment intervention significantly improved complementary feeding practice indicators, including MDD, MMF, MAD, energy, protein, and zinc adequacy. It also significantly increased the child,s WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ scores (p<0.05). Conclusion: The family empowerment intervention can be used as a nursing intervention to improve a family,s ability to provide appropriate complementary feeding practices and support a child,s optimal growth.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S7-S12
JournalJPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • Zinc
  • child growth
  • diet
  • early life nutrition
  • feeding
  • malnutrition


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