Background: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) seeded in carbonate apatite scaffold (CAS) may have multiple functions that could be used to regenerate the alveolar bone defects. The purpose of this study is to examine the ability of SHED and CAS in alveolar bone defects using an immunohistochemical analysis. Methods: ten three-month-old healthy male Wistar rats (R. novergicus) that weighed between 150-250 grams (g) were used as animal models. A simple blind random sampling method was used to select the sample that was assigned to the study group for CAS and SHED seeded in CAS (n=5). The animal study model of the alveolar bone was established by extracting the anterior mandible teeth. Rodent anesthesia was applied to relieve the pain during the procedure for all test animals. Immunohistochemistry was performed after seven days to facilitate the examination of the receptor activator of NF-κβ ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegrin (OPG), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin, and osteopontin expression. The data was analyzed using the unpaired t-test (p<0.01) and Pearson's correlation test (p<0.05). Results: The OPG, RUNX2, TGF-β, VEGF, ALP, osteocalcin, and ostepontin expressions were higher in SHED seeded in CAS than CAS only with a significant difference between the groups (p<0.01). Furthermore, the RANKL expression was lower in SHED seeded in CAS compared to CAS only. There was a strong reverse significant correlation between OPG and RANKL expression (p<0.05). Conclusions: The number of osteogenic marker expressing cells, such as OPG, RUNX2, TGF-β, VEGF, ALP, osteocalcin, and ostepontin, increased. However, RANKL expression in the alveolar bone defects that were implanted with SHED seeded in CAS did not increase after seven days.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1164
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Bone Defect Socket
  • Carbonate Apatite Scaffold
  • Medicine
  • Osteogenic Ability
  • Stem Cell from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth


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