Immunogenicity of Oral Rabies Vaccine Strain SPBN GASGAS in Local Dogs in Bali, Indonesia

Irene Linda Megawati Saputra, Suwarno Suwarno, Wahid Fakhri Husein, Pebi Purwo Suseno, I. Made Angga Prayoga, Ad Vos, I. Made Arthawan, Luuk Schoonman, John Weaver, Nuryani Zainuddin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Dog-mediated rabies is endemic in much of Indonesia, including Bali. Most dogs in Bali are free-roaming and often inaccessible for parenteral vaccination without special effort. Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) is considered a promising alternative to increase vaccination coverage in these dogs. This study assessed immunogenicity in local dogs in Bali after oral administration of the highly attenuated third-generation rabies virus vaccine strain SPBN GASGAS. Dogs received the oral rabies vaccine either directly or by being offered an egg-flavored bait that contained a vaccine-loaded sachet. The humoral immune response was then compared with two further groups of dogs: a group that received a parenteral inactivated rabies vaccine and an unvaccinated control group. The animals were bled prior to vaccination and between 27 and 32 days after vaccination. The blood samples were tested for the presence of virus-binding antibodies using ELISA. The seroconversion rate in the three groups of vaccinated dogs did not differ significantly: bait: 88.9%; direct-oral: 94.1%; parenteral: 90.9%; control: 0%. There was no significant quantitative difference in the level of antibodies between orally and parenterally vaccinated dogs. This study confirms that SPBN GASGAS is capable of inducing an adequate immune response comparable to a parenteral vaccine under field conditions in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1405
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • Bali
  • ORV
  • dog
  • rabies


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