Objective and methods: IL-33 is present in endothelial, epithelial, and fibroblast-like cells and released upon cell injury. IL-33 reportedly induces mast-cell degranulation and is involved in various diseases, including allergic diseases. So, IL-33-related diseases seem to overlap with histamine-related diseases. In addition to the release from mast cells, histamine is newly formed by the induction of histidine decarboxylase (HDC). Some inflammatory and/or hematopoietic cytokines (IL-1, IL-3, etc.) are known to induce HDC, and the histamine produced by HDC induction is released without storage. We examined the involvement of HDC and histamine in the effects of IL-33. Results: A single intraperitoneal injection of IL-33 into mice induced HDC directly and/or via other cytokines (including IL-5) within a few hours in various tissues, particularly strongly in hematopoietic organs. The major cells exhibiting HDC-induction were mast cells and c-kit+ cells in the bone marrow. HDC was also induced in non-mast cells in non-hematopoietic organs. HDC, histamine, and histamine H4 receptors (H4Rs) contributed to the suppression of IL-33-induced eosinophilia. Conclusion: IL-33 directly and indirectly (via IL-5) induces HDC in various cells, particularly potently in c-kit+ cells and mature mast cells, and the newly formed histamine contributes to the negative regulation of IL-33-induced eosinophilia via H4Rs.
- Histidine decarboxylase
- Mast cells