Identification of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations among HIV-1-infected individuals residing in Pontianak, Indonesia

Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Ni Luh Ayu Megasari, Dwi Wahyu Indriati, Tomohiro Kotaki, Diana Natalia, Nasronudin, Masanori Kameoka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction The present study investigated the HIV-1 subtype classification in addition to prevalence of drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced and ART-naïve residents of Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Methods Whole blood samples collected from 30 HIV-1-infected individuals, comprising 19 ART-experienced and 11 ART-naïve individuals, were subjected to RNA and DNA extraction, followed by HIV-1 genes amplification and sequencing analysis. HIV-1 subtyping was classified on viral pol genes encoding reverse transcriptase (RT gene) and protease (PR gene) accompanied by the env and gag genes. DRMs in the RT and PR genes were also analyzed. Results CRF01_AE was identified as the predominant circulating recombinant form (CRF) of HIV-1 in both ART-experienced and ART-naïve individuals. In addition, CRF02_AG, subtype B, recombinant virus expressing CRF01_AE and subtype B viral genomic fragments, also recombinant virus containing CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG genomic fragments were also identified. Acquired drug resistance (ADR) was identified in 28.5% of ART-experienced individuals, while no transmitted drug resistance was identified in ART-naïve individuals. Conclusions This study identified CRF01_AE as the most predominant HIV-1 CRF distributing in Pontianak, Indonesia. The prevalence of ADR is considered to be high; thus, further surveillance is needed in this region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174-183
Number of pages10
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Acquired drug resistance
  • CRF01_AE
  • HIV-1
  • Indonesia
  • Transmitted drug resistance


Dive into the research topics of 'Identification of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations among HIV-1-infected individuals residing in Pontianak, Indonesia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this