Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a calcium phosphate material that was used primarily in bone regeneration and repair as a result of its chemical similarity with bone. However, HAp has emerged as a very promising adsorbent for sequestering contaminants like heavy metals, dyes, hydrocarbons as well as other emerging pollutants from wastewater as a result of its versatility and encouraging adsorptive properties. Contaminants like heavy metals and dyes have been a major source of environmental concern. Research studies involving the use of HAp as adsorbents for the adsorptive treatment of heavy metal- and dye-contaminated wastewater have become increasingly popular due to its eco-friendliness, easy synthesis, unique adsorption properties etc. Various methods are available for the synthesis of HAp and its composites with some of these methods used in combination with other methods to obtain more efficient HAp-based adsorbents. In this work, the adsorptive removal of heavy metals and dyes by HAp and its composites was extensively reviewed as well as the parametric effects of process factors like contact time, solution pH, temperature, solute concentration etc on the adsorption process. Kinetic, thermodynamic, and isotherm models for elucidating the adsorption process were also considered. Generally, from the works reviewed, HAp-based adsorbents were found to be very effective for sequestering heavy metals and dyes from solution and thus presents a low-cost option for adsorptive wastewater treatment.
- Heavy metals