Purpose: Hybrid learning has been chosen as an alternative method in the conduction of clinical skill lectures during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic since students need to learn skills applied in emergency situations. This study aims to analyze students' attitudes between hybrid and online learning methods. Methods: A non-randomized study was conducted between hybrid group (HG) and online group (OG) on three courses (intravenous [IV]-line insertion, nasogastric tube [NGT] insertion, and neonatal resuscitation). We developed a preformed validated questionnaire to assess students' attitudes in five domains (willingness, understanding, capacity, self-efficacy, and intended behavior). The questionnaire was applied at the pre- and post-intervention. Results: A total of 100 participants were included (n=49 in HG, n=51 in OG). Post-course attitudes were significantly higher in online (IV-line, p=0.000; NGT, p=0.000; resuscitation, p=0.000) and hybrid (IV-line, p=0.000; NGT, p=0.000; resuscitation, p=0.000) groups compared to their pre-course. There were no significant differences in post-course attitude between groups (IV-line, p=0.072; NGT, p=0.163; resuscitation, p=0.146). Normalized-gain scores of all subjects were higher in HG (IV-line, p=0.012; NGT, p=0.085; resuscitation, p=0.033). Conclusion: In conclusion, hybrid learning could be considered as a better alternative in clinical skill lectures to maximize students' attitudes, especially during COVID-19 pandemic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377-388
Number of pages12
JournalKorean journal of medical education
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Attitude
  • COVID-19
  • Clinical skills
  • Hybrid learning
  • Medical education


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