How does Indonesia exercise agency in the contested and complex regional environment?

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Recent developments in the Asia-Pacific or Indo-Pacific region have illustrated the emergence of a contested region and unfolding regional order. Within the multiplicity, as argued in the introduction of the special issue, all stakeholders, including the weak state actors, not necessarily the superior ones, are participating in the process of order-building. This article looks at how Indonesia, the largest member country of ASEAN, pursues its agency amid the contested regional formulations between China and the US. The argument is that Indonesia promotes its concept of a rules-based interaction beyond the dominant great power politics, as a potential agency enabling the creation of a pluralised regional order. This agential position provides the basis to rethink the relevance of the established conceptual framework of hedging commonly used to understand small and middle powers’ foreign policies toward the major players. The author sees that Indonesia hedges in different ways, demonstrating a distinct conceptualisation which is likely to make a contribution to the project of Global IR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)297-318
Number of pages22
JournalPacific Review
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Global IR
  • Indo-Pacific
  • Indonesia
  • agency
  • hedging
  • order


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