Background: More than 40 genes influence the progression of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Different HLA genotype pat-terns result in diverse rates of T1DM development. HLA class II DR, DQ, and DP vary among different populations and ethnicities. Data on HLA polymorphism in T1DM in Indonesia are lacking. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the gene polymorphism of HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 in Indonesian children with T1DM. Patients and Methods: In this study, 31 patients with T1DM and 31 controls were enrolled from April 2020 to April 2021. This study was conducted at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Indonesia. We evaluated the gene polymorphism of HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. The primers used were as follows: for HLA-DQA1, DQAS34: 5ʹ-GGTGTAAACTTGTACCAG-3ʹ (forward) and DQAA261: 5ʹ-ATTGGTAGCAGCGGTAGA-3ʹ (reverse); for HLA-DQB1, DQBS43: 5ʹ-TGCTACT-TCACCAA(C/T)GGG-3ʹ (forward) and DQBA249: 5ʹ-GTAGTTGTGTCTGCA (C/T)AC-3ʹ (reverse). Results: The most common HLA-DQA1 subtype in the T1DM group was 0101/0102 accounting for 67.6%, and 01/03 and 02/03 were found in the T1DM group only. Meanwhile, the most common HLA-DQB1 subtype in the T1DM group was 0301, accounting for 54.8%. Most subjects in this study were Javanese. Conclusion: HLA-DQA1 0101/0102 and HLA-DQB1 0301 were commonly found in Indonesian children with T1DM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-17
Number of pages7
JournalApplication of Clinical Genetics
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Gene polymorphism
  • HLA-DQA1
  • HLA-DQB1
  • T1DM


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