Highly selective hierarchical ZSM-5 from kaolin for catalytic cracking of Calophyllum inophyllum oil to biofuel

Hartati, Wega Trisunaryanti, Rino Rakhmata Mukti, Ika Amalia Kartika, Putri Bintang Dea Firda, Satriyo Dibyo Sumbogo, Didik Prasetyoko, Hasliza Bahruji

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25 Citations (Scopus)


Upgrading the inferior properties of Calophyllum inophyllum oil via catalytic cracking into biofuel required a porous heterogeneous acid catalysts. Hierarchical ZSM-5 (Hi-ZSM-5(K)) produced from desilication of kaolin-derived ZSM-5 was employed as catalyst and the activity was compared with hierarchical ZSM-5 obtained from templating method (Hi-ZSM-5(T)). Catalytic cracking of Calophyllum inophyllum oil was carried out in one-pot reaction at 475 °C for 120 min under the flow of H2 and the products analysed using GC-MS were consisted of the mixtures of alkane, alkene, oxygenated carbon and aromatics compound. The advantages of desilication method for the formation of highly selective hierarchical ZSM-5 was observed when the catalyst exhibited enhanced acidity with mesopores diameter of 2–5 nm to give 93% conversion and high selectivity towards light C7–C9 hydrocarbons. However, Hi-ZSM-5(T) showed low acidity to give only 43% conversion, and selectivity towards C11–C12 hydrocarbons due to the mesopores diameter of 3–12 nm. The activity of hierarchical ZSM-5 was also compared with microporous ZSM-5 that produced biofuel with approximately equal distribution of C5–C18 hydrocarbons. The role of hierarchical structures was further discussed on the composition of aromatics compound, oxygenates content and alkene/alkane ratios of the biofuel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2238-2246
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Energy Institute
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • Biofuel
  • Calophyllum inophyllum oil
  • Catalytic cracking
  • Hierarchical ZSM-5
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Kaolin


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