Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic microorganism that successfully inhabits the human stomach, colonizing it by producing several virulence factors responsible for preventing host self-defense mechanisms. The adherence mechanism to gastric mucosal tissue is one of the most important processes for effective colonization in the stomach. The blood group antigen-binding adhesion (BabA) and sialic acid-binding adherence (SabA) are two H. pylori outer membrane proteins able to interact with antigens in the gastroduodenal tract. H. pylori possesses several mechanisms to control the regulation of both BabA and SabA in either the transcriptional or translational level. BabA is believed to be the most important protein in the early infection phase due to its ability to interact with various Lewis antigens, whereas SabA interaction with sialylated Lewis antigens may prove important for the adherence process in the inflamed gastric mucosal tissue in the ongoing-infection phase. The adherence mechanisms of BabA and SabA allow H. pylori to anchor in the gastric mucosa and begin the colonization process.
- Infectious disease