Green extraction of Quercus infectoria gall with supercritical CO2 and methanol co-solvent

Retno Purbowati, Titik Taufikurohmah, Achmad Syahrani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Green extraction of supercritical liquid CO2 (SCFE-CO2) using co-solvent methanol can produce a more complete phenolic acid composition and a higher quantity when compared to those without using co-solvent. The extract was devoid of toxicity. SCFE-CO2 is carried out by putting 100 g of Quercus infectoria gall of size 0.3 mm into extraction tube at temperature of 60 °C and the pressure of 20 MPa with a CO2 flow rate of 25 ml/min using co-solvent methanol with variation of flow speed 0.05, 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 for 60 min. The extract is analyzed using LC–MS/MS, the total phenolic content is determined using the Folin-Ceocateu method, and the toxicity value is determined using the Vero cell. According to the results, the green method of extracting SCFE-CO2 with methanol co-solvent can produce a peak and identify about 27 phenolic compounds, and increasing the rate of flow of methane co-solvent will greatly affect the outcome of the extraction to a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min, while adding a co-solvent with a flow speed above 0.5 does not affect the result. Repeated extraction of some of the largest phenolic peaks provide phenol content with minimal extract variability (div. sd. 0.1%), and the addition of soluble methanol will also increase the TPC concentration but does not increase the IC50 toxicity value above 1000.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Co-solvent methanol
  • Quercus infectoria
  • Reproducibility
  • Supercritical CO extraction
  • Toxicity
  • Yield


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