Graphene/PVA coated D-shaped fiber for sodium nitrate sensing

Huda Adnan Zain, Malathy Batumalay, Sulaiman Wadi Harun, Zuraidah Harith, Moh Yasin, Hazli Rafis Abdul Rahim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


A graphene/Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated D-shaped fiber structure for sensing sodium nitrate solutions is proposed in this paper. D-shaped single mode fiber (SMF) coated with graphene/PVA was used as a sensor for sodium nitrate liquid solutions with the concentration range of 1–7%. After monitoring the output power and spectral transmission characteristics of the sensor, the graphene/PVA coated sensor showed an improved performance over the uncoated structure. The evanescent mode of the side-polished fiber and the interaction between the nitrate ions and the coating graphene improved the sensor's performance. The graphene/PVA coated sensor had sensitivity and linearity of 0.390 dBm/% and 99% compared to the uncoated sensor sensitivity and linearity of 0.117 dBm/% and 98% respectively. This shows the advantage of using D-shaped fiber coated with graphene and PVA to detect sodium nitrate concentrations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113163
JournalSensors and Actuators, A: Physical
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • D-shaped fiber
  • Fiber optics sensor
  • Side polished fiber
  • Sodium nitrate


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