Gonial angle of healthy young males and females in Indonesia: A study using the facial photometry

Rudi Irawan, Viskasari P. Kalanjati, Peppy Nawangsasi, Risdiansyah, Abdurachman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Photometry gonial angle is a simpler and economic method useful to determine sex dimorphism and in orthodontic and prosthetic treatment plans, compared to the more common technique e.g. radiomorphometry of panoramic images. We aimed to compare the right and the left gonial angles of the young healthy males and females based on their frontal facial photographs. Methods: Twenty Indonesian males and twenty females aged 19-25 years were photographed facing forward at the 1.5 m of distance from the 12 mp DSLR camera held by a tripod in the relax sitting position. Photometry was conducted using tpsDig2 ver 2.3 software. Data were analyzed with independent t-test using SPSS 24.0. Level of significant was p< 0.05. Results: The mean ± SD value of the right gonial angle in males was 133.70 ± 4.68; the left side was 133.60 ± 5.49. Whilst was 134.20 ± 5.52 and 134.40 ± 4.98 in the right and the left side on the females, respectively. No significant differences of the right or the left gonial angle were found between males and females (p=0.784 and p=0.651, respectively). Conclusion: Photometry of the gonial angle was not significantly different between sexes in the current study; although future study with larger sample numbers and other methods should be done to confirm this.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-4
Number of pages4
JournalMalaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • Gonial angle
  • Photometry
  • Sexual dimorphism
  • Young healthy adults


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