Geographic tongue (GT) occurs in approximately 3-10% of the worldwide population. It affects twice as many females compared to males and although the condition affects all age groups it is more commonly observed in adults. GT is often asymptomatic, although some patients complain of soreness elicited by intake of acidic foods and drinks, increased tongue sensitivity and burning sensations. While, the etiopathogenesis of GT is unknown, several factors and associated conditions have been proposed. The use of tobacco, hereditary factors, various systemic diseases and fungal infection of the tongue have been suggested to increase susceptibility for the development of GT. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of systemic condition, systemic diseases and use of medications with geographic tongue. The etiology of geographic tongue is not clear. Some consider GT to be a congenital anomaly and others believe it to represent an acute inflammatory reaction. GT is a familial condition in which heredity plays a significant role. Associations with human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-DR5, HLA-DRW6, and HLA-Cw6 have also been reported. GT has also been linked to allergies, nutrition deficiency and use of medication like anti-VEGF. The condition that associated with GT causes a loss of filiform papillae leaving a flat mucosal surface with irregular interdigitations. The study concludes that systemic condition and the use of anti-VEGF are factors associated with GT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3045-3050
Number of pages6
JournalBiochemical and Cellular Archives
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Angiogenesis
  • Chemotherapy
  • Geographic tongue
  • Non communicable disease
  • Systemic condition


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