Genotypic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 prevalent in kepulauan riau, Indonesia

Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Shuhei Ueda, Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum, Muhammad Qushai Yunifiar Matondang, Dwi Wahyu Indriati, Tomohiro Kotaki, Nasronudin, Masanori Kameoka

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13 Citations (Scopus)


Kepulauan Riau is a famous tourist destination in Indonesia. The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is gradually increasing in this region. We collected peripheral blood samples from 62 antiretroviral therapy-experienced individuals. The amplification of viral genomic fragments, HIV-1 subtyping, and the detection of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) were performed. Viral subtyping revealed that the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype/circulating recombinant form (CRF) was CRF01-AE (55.6%), followed by recombinants between CRF01-AE and subtype B (17.8%) and then subtype B (15.6%). Recombinants containing CRF02-AG gene fragments were also detected (11.1%). Regarding HIVDR, no drug resistance-Associated major mutations were found in pol genes encoding protease, although minor mutations were frequently detected. Furthermore, major mutations, including M184V (2.2%) and Y188L (2.2%), were identified in the viral pol gene encoding reverse transcriptase derived from a study participant, suggesting that the prevalence of HIVDR is low in the region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)555-560
Number of pages6
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018


  • Art
  • Crf01-Ae
  • Hivdr
  • Indonesia
  • Kepulauan riau


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