The precise predictions of the differentiation direction and potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an important key to the success of regenerative medicine. The expression levels of fate-determining genes may provide tools for predicting differentiation potential. The expression levels of 95 candidate marker genes and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) contents after chondrogenic induction in 10 undifferentiated ilium and 5 jaw MSC cultures were determined, and their correlations were analyzed. The expression levels of eight genes before the induction of chondrogenic MSC differentiation were significantly correlated with the GAG levels after induction. Based on correlation patterns, the eight genes were classified into two groups: group 1 genes (AURKB, E2F1, CDKN2D, LIF, and ACLY), related to cell cycle regulation, and group 2 genes (CD74, EFEMP1, and TGM2), involved in chondrogenesis. The expression levels of the group 2 genes were significantly correlated with the ages of the cell donors. The expression levels of CDKN2D, CD74, and TGM2 were >10-fold higher in highly potent MSCs (ilium MSCs) than in MSCs with limited potential (jaw MSCs). Three-dimensional (3D) scatter plot analyses of the expression levels of these genes showed reduced variability between donors and confirmed predictive potential. These data suggest that group 2 genes are involved in age-dependent decreases in the chondrogenic differentiation potential of MSCs, and combined 3D analyses of the expression profiles of three genes, including two group 2 genes, were predictive of MSC differentiation potential.