Genetic Diversity and Drug Resistance of HIV-1 Circulating in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Shuhei Ueda, Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Tomohiro Kotaki, Nasronudin, Masanori Kameoka

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Manado, the capital city of North Sulawesi, is a unique region in Indonesia because of its religion. We collected peripheral blood samples from 63 individuals on antiretroviral therapy. The amplification of viral genomic fragments, viral subtyping, detection of HIV drug resistance-associated mutations (DRAMs), and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Viral subtyping revealed that the most prevalent HIV type 1 (HIV-1) subtype/circulating recombinant form (CRF) was CRF01-AE (84.1%), followed by subtype B (6.8%) and recombinants between CRF01-AE and CRF02-AG (4.5%). Although no major DRAMs were present in protease genes, they were detected in reverse transcriptase (RT) genes. Nine of 38 samples (23.7%) had major DRAMs against nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and/or non-NRTIs. The results of phylogenetic analyses indicated that CRF01-AE in North Sulawesi is related to that in Bali. Therefore, Bali may play an important role in circulating CRF01-AE in North Sulawesi.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)407-413
Number of pages7
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019


  • ART
  • CRF01-AE
  • Indonesia
  • North Sulawesi


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