Introduction: Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is a serious concern for nosocomial infection and the emergence rate in Indonesia is higher than that in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic characteristics of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolated from UTI patients in Indonesia. Materials and methods: We collected K. pneumoniae resistant to ceftazidime or cefotaxime isolated from UTI patients in Dr. Soetomo's Academic Hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia in 2015. Ninety-four strains were identified as ESBL-producing bacteria by confirmation tests. The isolates were investigated by antimicrobial susceptibility testing with 20 drugs and ESBL gene detection, plasmid replicon typing and virulence genes as hypermucoviscous (HMV) strains were tested by the string test. Results: High rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin (86.2%), tetracycline (80.9%) and nalidixic acid (78.7%) were observed. CTX-M-15 was the most common ESBL gene (89.4%), 33 of which also carried SHV-type ESBL. IncF was the most prevalent plasmid replicon typing (47.6%). Sixteen (17.0%) strains were judged as HMV, all of which had rmpA and more than half of which had fimH, uge, and wab. IncL/M was the most common replicon plasmid in the HMV strains, and the difference in the positive rate was statistically significant (p = 0.0024). Conclusion: This study showed the high prevalence of multiple-drug resistant and predominately CTX-M-15-positive ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in Indonesia. There was a correlation between IncL/M and the HMV phenotype in this study. As such hypervirulent strains continue to emerge, studying their dissemination with resistance determinants is an urgent priority.
- Klebsiella pneumoniae