Generation of bright-dark pulses in a Q-switched thulium-doped fiber laser by using 8-HQCdCl2H2O

Mustafa Mohammed Najm, Ahmed Shakir Al-Hiti, Pei Zhang, Alabbas A. Al-Azzawi, Bilal Nizamani, Ahmad Haziq Aiman Rosol, Mohammed Najm Abdullah, Moh Yasin, Sulaiman Wadi Harun

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5 Citations (Scopus)


We have generated a bright-dark pulse (BDP) in the passively Q-switched thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL) with the deployment of 8-Hydroxyquinoline cadmium chloride hydrate (8-HQCdCl2H2O) as an optical modulator in the laser ring cavity. 8-HQCdCl2H2O based thin film was obtained by blending a solution of 8-HQCdCl2H2O into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Modulation depth and the saturation intensity of 8-HQCdCl2H2O film were 18% and 0.1 MW/cm2, respectively. This reveals that it has massive potential in future fiber optic applications. At pump power of 954.73 mW, the proposed Q-switched TDFL achieved a maximum repetition rate of 33 kHz and a minimum pulse duration of 3.5 µs. The central wavelength was 1946.96 nm with a 3 dB bandwidth of 1.98 nm. Besides, the measured values of maximum pulse energy and output power were 70 nJ and 2.3 mW, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 8-HQCdCl2H2O is used as an optical modulator for generating BDPs in the 2 µm region.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109450
JournalOptics and Laser Technology
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • 8-HQCdClHO
  • Q-switched
  • Saturable absorber
  • Thulium-doped fiber laser


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